A Creek Indian Bibliography:

The Muscogee (Creek) Nation:

Sources for History, Biography and Genealogy;
Print and Internet Links
©Anne E. Gometz
Section 1: Begin Here
Section 2: Secondary Sources
Section 3: Primary Sources
Section 4: Biography
Section 5: Genealogy
Section 6: Finding Pictures
Section 7: Further Research

Section 3: Primary Sources......

General Web Collections

The web site Among the Creeks, http://homepages.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~cmamcrk4/index.html , (edited by Carol Middleton) includes transcriptions of primary sources on the Creeks. There are direct links in this bibliography to some of the more complete and/or published titles, but any researcher should look through the site for further citations. Also cited in Sections 1 and 5. As of April 2020 still online although not active.

The "Southeastern Native American Documents, 1730-1842" in the Digital Library of Georiga containing about 2,000 documents from libraries and museums in Georgia and Tennessee. Internet at: https://dlg.usg.edu/collection/dlg_zlna .

By author: A-B-C-D-E-F-G-H-I-J-K-L-M-N-O-P-R-S-T-U-W


Adair, James. Adair's History of the American Indians. London: 1775. Online at http://www.archive.org/details/historyofamerica00adairich. An editon annotated by Kathyrn H. Braund was published in 2005 as The History of the American Indians. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 2005.

Alabama and Coushatta Tribes of Texas. "Constitution and By-Laws." IN: (Creek)Indians: Alabama-Coushatta, pp.315-347. See Secondary Sources in this bibliography.

American State Papers. Class II. Indian Affairs. 2 v. Washington: Gales and Seaton, 1832. The collected papers of the the 1st through 19th Congresses spanning May 25, 1789-March 1, 1827. Unusually for publications of this period, there is a quite detailed index. Other volumes in the same set may also be relevant to research on the Creeks, e.g. "Military Affairs". Online at: http://lcweb2.loc.gov/ammem/amlaw/lwsplink.html#anchor2. See also New American State Papers below.

Amherst, Jeffrey see Mays, Edith in this section.

Atkin, Edmond. Indians of the Southern Colonial Frontier: The Edmond Atkin Report and Plan of 1755, ed. and with an introduction by Wilbur R. Jacobs. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1954. Reprinted as The Appalachian Indian Frontier: the Edmond Atkin Report and Plan of 1755 by the University of Nebraska Press, 1967.


Baptist Missionary Society of Massachuseets. American Baptist Missionary Magazine [title varies], v. 3 (1822) on. Later published by the Baptist General Convention. Links online at https://guides.library.yale.edu/c.php?g=296315&p=1976859. These are searchable files. Issues between 1822 and 1836 include references to Lee Compere and the mission school at Withington Station in Georgia and to the Arkansas mission and John Davis, a Creek interpreter and preacher.

Barnard, Timothy. "Unpublished Letters of Timothy Barnard 1784-1820." Compiled, copied, edited by Louise Frederick Hays. 1939. Typescript at the Georgia Dept. of Archives and History. Despite the title, many of these can also be found in the American State Papers. Indexed.

Bartram, William. Travels and Other Writings. (Library of America, 84) New York: Penguin Books, 1996. One of many editions of Bartram's works describing his various travels through the southeast and especially the Creek Confederacy in the late 18th century. While Bartram is now regarded as a very useful ethnographic source, he was primarily a naturalist and much of the book consists of descriptions and lists of plants and animals. An online copy of the 1794 edition is at https://archive.org/details/travelsthrough00bart.

[Baynton, Benjamin]. Authentic Memoirs of William Augustus Bowles, Esquire, Ambassador from the United Nations of Creeks and Cherokees, to the Court of London. Signed by "An Observer of Mankind". London: Printed for R. Faulder, 1791. Reprinted 1916 as The Magazine of History with Notes and Queries, Extra number 46 [pt. 2] with attribution to Baynton. Also reprinted as a photo-image with no editorial matter by Arno Press in 1971. According to Leitch Wright's biography of Bowles, Baynton based this on his conversations with Bowles in London. An early "as told to"? Online at http://www.archive.org/details/authenticmemoirs00bayn.

Benton, Jeffrey C. The Very Worst Road: Traveller's Accounts of Crossing Alabama's Old Creek Indian Territory, 1820-1847. Published for the Historic Chattahoochee Commission of Alabama and Georgia, 1998. Sixteen accounts.

Bossu, Jean-Bernard. Jean-Bernard Bossu's Travels in the Interior of North America, 1751-1762, translated and edited by Seymour Feiler. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1962. Originally published in 2 vols by Le Jay in Paris as Nouveaux Voyages aux Indes occidentales: Contenant une Relation des differens Peuples qui habitent les environs du grand Fleuve Saint-Louis, appellé vulgairement le Mississipi: leur Religion; leur gouvernement; leurs moeurs, les guerres et leur commerce online at https://archive.org/details/bub_gb_OnYBAAAAQAAJ/page/n20/mode/2up. An earlier translation, available in Google Books, Travels Through That Part of North America Formerly Called Louisiana was done by John Reinhold Forster (London: T. Davies, 1771). Bossu devotes two letters full of descriptive detail to his visit to the land of the Alabamas in 1759.

Bowles, William Augustus. Authentic Memoirs..., see Baynton, Benjamin in this section.

Boyd, Mark F., ed. "From a Remote Frontier," Florida Historical Quarterly, v. 19, no. 3 (Jan., 1941), p. 179-212, Letters and Documents Pertaining to San Marcos de Apalache, 1763-1769, during the British Occupation of Florida; v. 19, no. 4 (Apr., 1941), p. 402-412, Letters Passing between Captain Harries in Command at Apalache (St. Marks) 1763-1764 and the Commanders-in-Chief, Amherst and Gage (Continued); v. 20, no. 1 (Jul., 1941), p. 82-92, Letters Passing between Captain Harries in Command at Apalache (St. Marks) in 1764 and His Commander-in-Chief, General Gage, in New York; v. 20, no. 2 (Oct., 1941), p. 203-209, Letters and Documents Passing between John Stuart, Superintendent of Indian Affairs, and Captain Harries in Command at Apalache (St. Marks), and General Gage, Their Commander in Chief at New York, September 1764 (Continued); v. 20, no. 4 (Apr., 1942), p. 382-397, Letters and Reports Passing Between the Commanders at Apalache (St. Marks), Governor Grant at St. Augustine, General Haldimand at Pensacola, and General Gage, Commander-in-Chief at New York, 1766-1767.

Burckhard, Johann Christian. Partners in the Lord's Work: The Diary of Two Moravian Missionaries in the Creek Indian Country, 1807-1913, trans. and ed. by Carl Mauelshagen and Gerald H. Davis. (Georgia State College Research Paper no. 21.) Atlanta: Georgia State College, 1969.


Campbell, Thomas. "Thomas Campbell to Lord Deane Gordon: An Account of the Creek Indian Nation, 1764." Florida Historical Society Quarterly, v. 8, no. 3 (Jan 1930), pp. 156-163.

Caughey, John W. McGillivray of the Creeks. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1938. Reprinted 2007 with a new introduction by William J. Bauer. Entered here because most of the volume is devoted to McGillivray's own letters.

Chester, Peter see Rowland, Eron.

Compere, Lee. Missionary, 1820s. See citations in entry in Secondary Sources: Flynt, Sean.

Confederate States. "Confederate Indian Treaties." Copies of Treaty with Creek, North Fork Village, July 10, 1861 and Treaty with Creek Nation, July 12, 1861. National Archives Identifier: 2669211. See https://catalog.archives.gov/id/2669211.

Constitutions and Laws as collected and digitized by the Library of Congress Law Library, http://www.loc.gov/law/help/american-indian-consts/us-south.php?loclr=bloglaw.

Constitution and Laws of the Muscogee Nation, as Compiled and Codified by A. P. McKellop, under Act of October 15, 1892. Originally published 1893 and since reprinted by Scholarly Resources. Online at http://www.archive.org/details/constitutionand02statgoog.

Covington, James W., ed. The British Meet the Seminoles: Negotiations Between British Authorities in East Florida and the Indians: 1763-68. (Contributions of the Florida State Museum: Social Sciences number 7.) Gainesville: University of Florida, 1961.) Letters and reports, most by Governor James Grant. Covers Picolata Congress, 1765, and Picolata Conference, 1767. Includes James Robertson's 1763 report. Note that while the editor uses the term Seminole in the title and his comments, the documents use Creek or Lower Creek; Seminole doesn't appear.

"Creek Indian Letters, Talks and Treaties". 4 v. Typescript. 1939. Georgia Dept. of Archives and History. Compiled by Louise F. Hays.

Creek Indian Project Records. Collection at the University of West Florida University Archives and West Florida History Center. Materials collected by Jane Dysart and Lucius Ellsworth. Description and finding aid.

Creek Manuscripts. The collections of the Dept. of Special Collections of the McFarlin Library at the University of Tulsa [Oklahoma] contain many materilas on the Creeks. Use the Archives search to identify individual collections. At https://utulsa.as.atlas-sys.com/ .

Creek Nation Manuscript Collections, Western History Collections, University of Oklahoma Libraries. See their Western History Collection at http://digital.libraries.ou.edu/WHC/ and click "Native American".

Creek National Council. Acts and Resolutions of the Creek National Council of the Extra Session of April, 1894, and the Regular Session of October, 1894. Compiled and translated by D. C. Watson. Originally published 1894 and since reprinted by Scholarly Resources. Online at https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/010447259 .

____. Acts and Resolutions of the Creek National Council of the Sessions of May, June, October, November, and December, 1895. Compiled and translated by D. C. Watson. Originally published 1896 and since reprinted by Scholarly Resources.

"Creek Papers". Georgia Dept. of Archives and History, Atlanta. The collective term used to refer to a number of transcribed manuscript collections in the Georgia Archives. See individual citations in this bibliography.

"Creek Treaties Related to Georgia." Transcripts. From the Carl Vinson Institute's "GeorgiaInfo" site at http://georgiainfo.galileo.usg.edu/crtreaty.htm. Content still online, but no longer being maintained.

Cuba. Governor. "Brief, Dealing with Various Communications from the Governor of Cuba on the Subject of Trade with the Uchise Indians, Extracted for the Council of the Indies, February 27, 1778. Archivo Historico Nacional [Madrid] Legajgo 3884, Expediente 1, Document 9." IN Florida Historical Quarterly, v. 32, no. 2 (1953), p. 92-130.

By author: A-B-C-D-F-G-H-I-J-K-L-M-N-O-P-R-S-T-U-W


Dawes, Henry Laurens. Papers, 1833-1933 [manuscript collection]. At the Library of Congress. See detailed catalog record, http://lccn.loc.gov/mm78017988, and finding aid, http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.mss/eadmss.ms011203.

Debo, Angie. The Five Civilized Tribes of Oklahoma: Report on Social and Economic Conditions. Philadelphia: Indian Rights Association, 1951. Online at https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/000247980 .

Doyle, Edmund. "The Panton Leslie Papers: Letters of Edmund Doyle, Trader," Florida Historical Quarterly,, v. 16, no. 4, (April 1938), p. 251-264, letters dated between 1808 and 1814. Continued in v. 17, no. 1 (July 1938), p. 54-58, letters to John Innerarity, 1814; v. 17, no. 3 (January 1939), p. 237-242, from 1815; v. 17, no. 4 (April 1939), p. 312-318, from 1817; v. 18, no. 1 (July 1939), p. 61-63, from 1817; v. 18, no. 2 (October 1939), p. 135-140, from 1818. An extensive introduction to the letters and the history of the area was published in v. 16, no. 2 (October 1937), p. 55-96, "Events at Prospect Bluff on the Apalachicola River, 1808-1818: An Introduction to Twelve Letters of Edmund Doyle, Trader," by Mark Boyd.


East Florida Papers at the Smathers Library, University of Florida (178 microfilm reels) contain the complete local government archive of Spanish East Florida (1784 to 1821) and include many references to the Creeks. See this Index and description. Also in the Library of Congress Manuscript Collection.


Fitch, Tobias. "Journal of Captain Tobias Fitch's Mission from Charleston to the Creeks, 1726." IN Travels in the American Colonies, edited by Newton D. Mereness. New York: Macmillan, 1916, pp.175-212.Online at https://archive.org/details/merenesscolonies00newtrich.


Gaines, George Strother. The Reminiscences of George Strother Gaines, Pioneer and Statesman of Early Alabama and Mississippi, 1805-1843. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1998. Contains the "Reminiscences" and supporting documents of Gaines who was the Choctaw agent. The Creek War as viewed from the Choctaw side.

General Council of the Indian Territory see Indian Territory. General Council.

Georgia. Executive Council. "Minutes of Executive Council of Georgia, January 7, 1788-January 7, 1789". Typescript. 1939. Georgia Dept. of Archives and History.

Georgia. Executive Dept. "Executive Department Minutes Typed from Four Pamphlets Marked "Rough Drafts". 1939. Typescript. Georgia Dept. of Archives and History.

Georgia. Governor. "Letter Books" [October 20, 1786-July 20, 1802] Typescripts. Georgia Dept. of Archives and History.

Georgia Historical Society. Collections. Individual titles listed separately.

Georgia. House of Assembly. "Minutes, House of Assembly, Augusta, Ga., Aug. 3, to Nov. 10, 1786. -- Minutes of Board of Commissioners - Shoulderbone Treaty" Typescript. Georgia Dept. of Archives and History.

Glover, Charlesworth see Salley, A. S.

Gordon, Adam. "Journal of an Officer's [Lord Adam Gordon's] Travels in America and the West Indies, 1764-17865." IN Travels in the American Colonies, edited by Newton D. Mereness. New York: Macmillan, 1916. His description of the Creek Indians he saw at Pensacola is on pp. 384-385. Online at https://archive.org/details/merenesscolonies00newtrich.

Gordon, Arthur. "Congress at Pensacola" [26 May- 4 June 1765]. IN Mississippi Provincial Archives, 1763-1766. English Dominion. Compiled and edited by Dunbar Rowland. Nashville, Tenn: Press of Brandon Printing Company, 1911. Vol. 1, pp. 188-210. Submitted by Gordon as Secretary, "A True Copy of the Proceedings at the Congress with the Creeks at Panzacola." Online at https://archive.org/details/mississippiprovi01missuoft/page/n3.

Grant, C. L. and Gerald H. Davis. "The Wedding of Col. Benjamin Hawkins," North Carolina Historical Review, v. 54, no. 3 (1977), pp. 308-316. Transcription of an 1812 letter from Moravian missionary, Karsten Petersen, who performed the marriage of Hawkins and Lavinia Downs. Gives background on the Moravian presence at the Indian agency.

Grant, James [Governor, East Florida], see Covington, James W., ed. and also Stuart, John.

Greenslade, Marie Taylor, ed. see Innerarity, John.


Haveman, Christopher E., ed. Bending Their Way Onward: Creek Indian Removal in Documents. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2018. Over 800 pages of records including government reports, journals, letters, and rolls of names beginning in 1827 with the supporters of Chilly McIntosh.

Hawkins, Benjamin. Collected Works of Benjamin Hawkins, edited by Thomas Foster. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 2003. Contents: A Sketch of the Creek Country in the Years 1798 and 1799, The Letters of Benjamin Hawkins 1796-1805, and previously unpublished "viatories" or travel notebooks. Note: index is only partial.

____. "A Concise Description of the Creek Country, with Some Remarkable Customs Practiced among the Native Inhabitants," The Medical Repository (And Review Of American Publications On Medicine, Surgery and the Auxiliary Of Science), Second Hexade, v. 4 (1807), pp. 36-43. Available in HathiTrust, https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/008603258.

____. The Letters, Journals, and Writings of Benjamin Hawkins, edited by. C. L. Grant. 2 vols. Savannah: Beehive Press, 1980. Contains letters, 1802-1816, not included in the other published collections.

____. Letters of U. S. Indian Agent Benjamin Hawkins, (Collections of the Georgia Historical Society, v. 9) Savannah: The Society, 1916. Online at https://www.familysearch.org/library/books/records/item/87530-redirection . Need to create a FamilySearch login, but free access.

____. A Sketch of the Creek Country in the Years 1798 and 1799. (Collections of the Georgia Historical Society, v. 3, pt. 1) Savannah: The Society, 1848. Online at https://www.familysearch.org/library/books/records/item/87530-redirection . Need to create a FamilySearch login, but free access.

Hays, Louise see "Creek Letters, Talks and Treaties".

Hill, James L., ed. �The Indian Frontier in British East Florida: Letters to Governor James Grant from Soldiers and Indian Traders at Fort St. Marks of Apalache, 1763-1784,� transcribed documents, Florida History Online, http://www.floridahistoryonline.com (2010).

Hitchcock, Ethan Allen. A Traveler in Indian Territory: The Journal of Ethan Allen Hitchcock, Late Major-General in the United States Army, ed. by Grant Foreman. Cedar Rapids, Iowa: The Torch Press, 1930. Hitchcock's four months in Indian Territory in 1842 collecting information and investigating the many frauds against the Indians. Chapter 8 is his notes on Creek customs, especially on the Busk ceremony, from a separate notebook.

By author: A-B-C-D-E-F-G-H-I-J-K-L-M-N-O-P-R-S-T-U-W


"Indian-Pioneer History", aka "Indian-Pioneer Papers". Oklahoma Historical Society (Grant Foreman Collection) and Western History Collection, University of Oklahoma. This collection consists of interviews done by the WPA Project 1937-38 with Oklahoma citizens of all races. Each of these repositories has a complete bound set and the papers have also been microfilmed. Online by the Western History Collection at http://digital.libraries.ou.edu/whc/pioneer/.
For published selections from the interviews, also see Perdue, Theda in this section.

Indian Territory. General Council. Journal of the General Council of the Indian Territory, Composed of Delegates Duly Elected from the Indian Tribes Legally Resident Thereof, Assembled in Council at Okmulgee in the Indian Territory.... Meeting of Sept-Dec. 1870. Includes "Constitution of the Indian Territory." Originally published 1871, reprinted 1975. Online at https://archive.org/details/Ayer_E78_I5_I5_1871/page/n1/mode/2up .

Indian Territory. General Council. Journal of the Second Annual Session of the General Council of the Indian Territory, Composed of Delegates Duly Elected from the Indian Tribes Legally Resident Therein, Assembled in Council at Okmulgee, Indian Territory from the 5th to the 14th (inclusive) of June 1871... Published 1871. Online at https://archive.org/details/journalofannuals02indi/page/n6/mode/2up .

Indian Territory. General Council. Journal of the Fourth Annual Session of the General Council of the Indian Territory, Composed of Delegates Duly Elected from the Indian Tribes Legally Resident Therein, Assembled in Council at Okmulgee, Indian Territory from the 5th to the 15th (inclusive) of May 1873... Published 1873. Online at https://archive.org/details/journalofannuals04indi/page/n6/mode/2up .

Indian Territory. General Council. Journal of the Fifth Annual Session of the General Council of the Indian Territory, Composed of Delegates Duly Elected from the Indian Tribes Legally Resident Therein, Assembled in Council at Okmulgee, Indian Territory from the 4th to the 14th (inclusive) of May 1874... Published 1874. Online at https://archive.org/details/journalofannuals05indi/page/n6/mode/2up .

Indian Territory. General Council. Journal of the Sixth Annual Session of the General Council of the Indian Territory, Composed of Delegates Duly Elected from the Indian Tribes Legally Resident Therein, Assembled in Council at Okmulgee, Indian Territory from the 3rd to the 15th (inclusive) of May, 1875... Originally published 1875, reprinted 1975.

Innerarity, John. "The Creek Nation, Debtor to John Forbes & Co., Successors to Panton, Leslie & Co.: A Journal of John Innerarity, 1812." Florida Historical Quarterly, v. 9 (1930), pp. 67-89. Includes "A list of debts due by the traders & factors of the Upper Creek towns...1812" and is followed by a biographical sketch "John Innerarity, 1783-1854" (pp. 90-95) by Marie Taylor Greenslade who apparently transcribed the journal.

____. "A Prelude to the Creek War of 1813-1814 in a Letter of John Innerarity to James Innerarity." Florida Historical Quarterly, v. 18 (1940), p. 249-60. Introduced and edited by Elizabeth Howard West.


Jackson, James. The Papers of James Jackson, 1781-1789. (Collections of the Georgia Historical Society, v. 11), ed. by Lilla M. Hawes. Savannah: Georgia Historical Society, 1955.

"Journal of the Conference at Coleraine", 22 April - 29 June, 1796. Journal of the Georgia Commissioners negotiation with the Creek Indians at Coleraine. Does not include the text of the treaty. Digitzed copy online at http://vault.georgiaarchives.org/cdm/ref/collection/adhoc/id/1757 . Archives' record says "Cite as Indian Claims (Treaties and Spoliations), Governor, RG 1-1-25, Georgia Archives."

Journal of the Congress of the Four Southern Governors, and the Superintendent of That District, with the Five Nations of Indians, at Augusta, 1763. Charleston, S. C.: Printed by Peter Timothy,1764. At the end: "A FAIR Copy of the journal at Augusts, transcribed by FINWICKE BULL, secretary." Available online http://name.umdl.umich.edu/N07603.0001.001 in Evans Early American Imprint Collection. Also published as "Minutes of the Southern Congress...," Colonial Records of North Carolina, v. 11, p. 156-207, online as https://docsouth.unc.edu/csr/index.php/document/csr11-0084.

Juricek, John T., ed. Georgia Treaties, 1733-1763. (Early American Indian documents : treaties and laws, 1607-1789; v. 11.) Frederick, Maryland: University Publications of America, 1989.


Kappler, Charles J. ed. Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties. 7 v. Also known as the "Kappler Report," this is a compilation of treaties (full text) done for Congress. Washington, D C.: Government Printing Office, 1903-41. The Library at Oklahoma State University has created an online version. Internet at: http://dc.library.okstate.edu/digital/collection/kapplers . To find Creek treaties in volume 2, you can use the chronological arrangement of the volume, look in the index for name of tribe or treaty, or use the search feature on site.

Knox, Henry. Letter to George Washington on Indian relations, specifically Creeks, 7 July 1789. 15 p. Transcript.


Lackey, Richard S., comp. Frontier Claims in the Lower South: Records of Claims Filed by Citizens of the Alabama and Tombigbee River Settlements in the Mississippi Territory for Depredations by Creek Indians During the War of 1812. A transcription of National Archives materials from Record Group 233. Most deal with Fort Mims and provide details on the events at that time. Note that people filing for compensation include Creeks.

"Letter Book of the Creek Trading House, 1795-1816". National Archives microfilm M4, 1 reel. Very difficult to read.

Levasseur, Charles see Secondary Sources: Knight, Vernon James Jr., "A Voyage to the Mobile and Tomeh in 1700."

Lindsey, Lilah Denton. "Archive, 1866-1944." This collection is in the Dept. of Special Collections of the McFarlin Library at the University of Tulsa [Oklahoma]. A finding aid is at https://utulsa.as.atlas-sys.com/repositories/2/resources/257 . She was "a woman of Creek descent generally agreed to have been Tulsa's first school teacher."

____. "Memories of the Indian Territory Mission Field." Chronicles of Oklahoma, v. 36 (1958/59), pp.181-198. A memoir written in 1938 and deposited at the Oklahoma Historical Society.

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Manac, Samuel. "The Deposition of Samuel Manac, of Lawful Age, a Warrior of the Creek Nation." Alabama Historical Reporter, v. 1 (1880), p.2-3. Testimony given August 1813 about Tecumseh and Hillis Harjo and their influence.

Martin, Jack B, ed. see "Pum Mvhayv Toyetskat...".

Mauelshagen, Carl and Gerald H. Davis. "The Moravians' Plan for a Mission among the Creek Indians, 1803-1804," Georgia Historical Quarterly, v. 51, no. 3 (1967), pp. 358-364. Describes the records in the Moravian archives that were produced when the establishment of a mission was being considered. Two of the reports are included (translated from the original German). The first document (by Carl Gotthold Reichel, Christian Ludwig Benzien, and Simon Peter,) also refers to their earlier mission near Savannah. The second document is Abraham Steiner's report on his trip to the Creek country to find a mission site.

Mays, Edith, ed. Amherst Papers, 1756-1763: The Southern Sector: Dispatches from South Carolina, Virginia and His Majesty's Superintendent of Indian Affairs. Westminster, Md.: Heritage Books, 2006. Mays has selected from Public Record Office collection WO 34/47-48, General Sir Jeffrey Amherst 1712-1784, records relating to the war with the Cherokees and other southern transactions from this period, transcribed them, placed them in chronological order, and added an every name index. While the bulk of the material deals with the Cherokees, there are many mentions of Creeks and Catawbas.

McCulloch, Alexander. See Cutrer, Thomas in Secondary Sources.

McIntosh, Lachlan. The Papers of Lachlan McIntosh, 1774-1779, ed. by Lilla M. Hawes. (Collections of the Georgia Historical Society, v. 12). Savannah: Georgia Historical Society, 1957.

McKellop, A. P. see Constitution and Laws...

Milfort, Louis Le Clerc. Memoirs, or, A Quick Glance at My Various Travels and My Sojourn in the Creek Nation. The author styled himself "Tastanegy, or Great War Chief of the Creek Nation, and Brigadier-General in the Service of the French Republic". Milfort came to the Creek Nation in 1776 and stayed for nineteen years. The Memoirs were originally published in France in 1802. A translation by Ben C. McCary was published in 1959 and republished in 1972 by the Beehive Press, Savannah, Ga. There is also an online copy. Internet at: https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/000560421 .

Minutes of the Southern Congress at Augusta, Georgia, 1763 see Journal of the Congress of the Four Southern Governors, and the Superintendent of That District, with the Five Nations of Indians, at Augusta, 1763.

Montault de Monberaut, Henri. Memoire justificatif of the Chevalier Montault de Monberaut : Indian diplomacy in British West Florida, 1763-1765, translation and introduction by Milo B. Howard and Robert R. Rea. (Southern historical publications no. 3) Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1965. An account, disputing accusations by British officials, by a former French official and commander of Fort Toulouse who served the British as deputy superintendent of Indian affairs for a short time. He was a prominent actor in the negotiations with Choctaws and Creeks in 1765.

Motte, Jacob R. Journey into the Wilderness: An Army Surgeon's Account of Life in Camp and Field during the Creek and Seminole Wars, 1836-1838, ed. by James F. Sunderman. Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1953.


Nairne, Thomas. Nairne's Muskhogean Journals: The 1708 Expedition to the Mississippi River, ed. by Alexander Moore. Jackson: University of Mississippi Press, 1988.

"Names of Creek Indians, officers - and numbers of men who served under General Andrew Jackson in the War of 1812 - "The Red Stick War"", undated. Library of Congress Miscellaneous Manuscript Collection. LCCN Permalink https://lccn.loc.gov/mm83003851 .

"A narrative of the life and death of Lieut. Joseph Morgan Willcox who was massacred by the Creek Indians, on the Alabama River, Miss. Ter., on the 15th of January, 1814." "Compiled from various publications and letters written by his friends and brother officers, on the occasion." Marietta, Ohio: Printed by R. Prentiss, 1816. Pamphlet, 23 p., (Early American imprints. Second series ; no. 38356.) Readex Microopaque. Distributed by Garland as print and ebook.

New American State Papers: Indian Affairs, v. 6-11, Southeast Wilmington, Del.: Scholarly Resources, Inc., 1972. A reissue of the American State Papers with other material from archives, etc. added. Unfortunately, the publisher did not include any editorial apparatus identifying the additional materials and there is no indexing.


"Oglethorpe's Treaty with the Lower Creek Indians." Georgia Historical Quarterly, v. 4, no. 1 (Mar 1920), p. 3-16. A 1755 copy of the 1739 treaty.


Peddy, T[homas] J[oseph] ,comp. "Creek Letters 1800-1819." Typescript. Georgia Dept. of Archives and History.

Perdue, Theda, ed. Nations Remembered. Originally published by Greenwwod Press in 1980 with the subtitle, An Oral History of the Five Civilized Tribes, 1865-1907 and reprinted by the University of Oklahoma Press, 1993, with the subtitle, An Oral History of the Cherokees, Chickasaws, Choctaws, Creeks, and Seminoles in Oklahoma, 1865-1907. Selections from the WPA interviews known as the "Indian-Pioneer History" and housed at the library of the University of Oklahoma and at the Oklahoma Historical Society.

Peterson, Karsten see Grant, C. L. in this section.

Pope, John. A Tour through the Southern and Western Territories of the United States of North America. Originally published 1792. The introduction and indexes by Barton Starr for the facsimile edition make it much more useful. Gainesville: University Presses of Florida, 1979.

"Pum Mvhayv Toyetskat: Creek Letters to Ann Eliza Worcester Robertson, 1878-1905." Margaret McKane Mauldin, Translator; Jack B. Martin, Editor. Online at http://muskogee.blogs.wm.edu/letters/ . The letters are given in both Creek and English. "The letters gathered here were written in the Creek (Muskogee) language of present-day Oklahoma and addressed to Ann Eliza Worcester Robertson, a missionary to the Creeks at a time when the Creek Nation was an independent nation within Indian Territory. The bulk of the letters in the collection are from the University of Tulsa's McFarlin Library, where they form part of the Alice Robertson Collection." [See Robertson, Alice. "Papers." on this page.]

By author: A-B-C-D-E-F-G-H-I-J-K-L-M-N-O-P-R-S-T-U-W


"A Ranger's Report of Travels with General Oglethorpe, 1739-1742." IN Travels in the American Colonies, edited by Newton D. Mereness. New York: Macmillan, 1916, pp. 218-236. From the Oglethorpe Papers at the Georgia Historical Society. No authorship attributed. Online at https://archive.org/details/merenesscolonies00newtrich.

Robertson, Alice Mary. "Papers" aka "The Worcester-Robertson Family Papers". This collection is in the Dept. of Special Collections of the McFarlin Library at the University of Tulsa [Oklahoma]. It is being digitised. Online at http://www.lib.utulsa.edu/digital/robertson/index.asp . "Mary Alice Robertson was born in 1854 at Tullahassee Mission the Creek country...the institute she had nurtured as the Presbyterian School for Indian Girls became Henry Kendall College and then The University of Tulsa. In addition, she was the second woman elected to the Congress of the United States. The thousands of papers that make up the Alice Robertson Collection include personal papers, journals, and letters documenting three generations of an Indian mission family and the history of the Indian nations they served." She was the granddaughter of Samuel Austin Worcester, who "gave his name to Worcester v. Georgia, 31 U.S. (6 Pet.) 515 (1832), one of the cases in the Marshall trilogy, the foundation decisions of federal Indian law". For a selection of letters from this collection, see the entry "Pum Mvhayv Toyetskat..." on this page.

Rowland, Eron (Mrs. Dunbar). "Peter Chester, Third Governor of the Province of West Florida under British Dominion, 1770-1771." Publications of the Mississippi Historical Society: Centenary Series, v. 5 (1925), pp. ix-183. This work contains Chester's correspondence and other papers from the period 1770 to 1773. Of particular note is the proceedings of the congress with the Creeks held at Pensacola, October 29 to November 3, 1771.

Rules of the House of Warriors / Adopted December 7, 1903. Okmulgee, Indian Territory: Chieftain Printing House. Online, at https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/010447260 . In English.


Salley, A. S. "The Creek Indian Tribes in 1725." South Carolina Genealogical and Historical Magazine, v. 32 (July 1931), pp. 241-242. "Capt Glover's Account of Indian Tribes," a population count by towns.

Schermerhorn, John. "Report Respecting the Indians Inhabiting the Western Parts of the United States, Communicated by Mr. John Schermerhorn to the Secretary of the Society for Propagating the Gospel among the Indians and Others in North America." Collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society, v. 12 [i.e. v.2 of the 2nd series] (1814), pp.1-48. The Creeks are on pp. 18-22. Online at https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=njp.32101018323723;view=1up;seq=9 .

Scott, Sutton S. "Some Account of Confederate Indian Affairs." Gulf States Historical Magazine, v. 2 (1903-04), pp. 136-154 w. port. facing p. 137. Scott was the Commissioner of Indian Affairs for the Confederacy; therefore I'm placing this in "Primary Sources." However, it is obvious that writing this many years later, he relied on published records to flesh out his memories. Online at https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/000530241 .

Steiner, Abraham see Manuelshagen, Carl in this section.

Stiggins, George. Creek Indian History: A Historical Narrative of the Genealogy, Traditions and Downfall of the Ispocoga or Creek Indian Tribe of Indians. Birmingham, Ala.: Birmingham Public Library Press, 1989. Stiggin's manuscript was also transcribed by Theron A. Nunez Jr. and published as "Creek Nativism and the Creek War of 1813-1814," Ethnohistory, v. 5 (1958), pp. 1-47, 131-175, 292-301.

Stuart, John. "Indian Talk by John Stuart, Copy to General Gage, Apalache, 25th September 1764" AND "Chehayache's Response to Stuart, Copy to General Gage, Apalache, 27th Sept. 1764," IN "From A Remote Frontier" edited by Mark F. Boyd, Florida Historical Quarterly, v. 20 (1941), pp. 205-207.

____. "Observations of Superintendent John Stuart and Governor James Grant of East Florida on the Proposed Plan of 1764 for the Future Management of Indian Affairs." American Historical Review, v. 20, no. 4 (Jul. 1915), pp. 815-831. Introduction by Clarence E. Carter. Available at JSTOR, https://www.jstor.org/stable/1835546.

Swan, Caleb. "Position and State of Manners and Arts in the Creek, or Muscogee Nation in 1791." IN Schoolcraft, Henry R., Information Respecting the History, Condition and Prospects of the Indian Tribes of the United States, v. 5, p. 251-283. Philadelphia, J. B. Lippincott & Company, 1855. Online at https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100268118 .


Tait, James A. "Journal of James Tait for the Year 1813," edited by Peter A. Brannon. Alabama Historical Quarterly, v. 2 (1940), pp. 432-440. Also Georgia Historical Quarterly, v. 8 (1924), p. 229-239.

Taitt, David. "Journal of David Taitt's Travels from Pensacola, West Florida, to and through the Country of the Upper and the Lower Creeks, 1772." IN Travels in the American Colonies, edited by Newton D. Mereness. New York: Macmillan, 1916, pp. 493-565. Online at https://archive.org/details/merenesscolonies00newtrich .

Territorial Papers of the United States, vol. 4, The Territory South of the River Ohio, 1790-1796. edited by Clarence Edwin Carter. Washington, D. C.: Government Printing Office, 1936. This territory (also known as the Southwest Territory) was originally the Washington District of North Carolina and became the state of Tennessee. Its only governor was William Blount; his "Journal of Proceedings" is included. The editor's introduction explains that, while in general the Territorial Papers did not include the bulk of documents on Indian affairs, in this case "Indian policies and defense constituted the prime interest of both the territorial and Federal governments." References are mainly to the Cherokees, Chickasaws, and Creeks. Online at https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/000495370 .

Tuggle, William O. Shem, Ham & Japheth: The Papers of W. O. Tuggle Comprising His Indian Diary, Sketches & Observations, Myths & Washington Journal in the Territory & at the Capitol, 1879-1882, ed. by Eugene Current-Garcia with Dorothy B. Hatfield. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1973. Tuggle served as a legal agent representing the interests of the Creek Nation.


United States. Bureau of Indian Affairs. "Memorandum. Recommendation and summary of evidence for proposed finding for Federal acknowledgment of the Poarch Band of Creeks of Alabama pursuant to 25 CF R 83." (PBC-V001-D006) Stamped date: Dec. 29, 1983. 131 p. Online at https://www.bia.gov/sites/default/files/dup/assets/as-ia/ofa/petition/013_prchcr_AL/013_pf.pdf. Extensive source list.

United States. Commission to Investigate Alleged Frauds on Creek Indians. Alleged Frauds on Creek Indians. Washington, D. C.: T. Allen, [1838]. Written by Thomas Hartley Crawford and Alfred Balch. House Doc No. 452, 25th Congress, 2nd session. Available online at https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/009573380.

United States. Indian Claims Commission. Decisions. 43 vols, 1948-1978. Online at http://digital.library.okstate.edu/icc/index.html. Also published as a microfiche set. Includes "Creek Nation, Plaintiff, The Creek Nation East of the Mississippi, Intervenor, v. the United States, Defendant," Date 1962-09-10.

United States. Library of Congress. "Native American Spaces: Cartographic Resources at the Library of Congress: Indian Territory." (Research guide.) Links to digitized maps. Online at https://guides.loc.gov/native-american-spaces/cartographic-resources/indian-territory.

United States. National Archives. "Ratified Indian Treaties," Record Group 11, Series: Indian Treaties, 1789-1869.
Ratified Indian Treaty 25: Creeks - Colerain, Georgia, June 29, 1796. Online at https://digitreaties.org/treaties/treaty/170281477/.
Treaty Between the United States and the Creek Indians Signed at Colerain, Georgia, with the Instrument of Ratification Signed by President John Adams and Secretary of State Timothy Pickering on March 18, 1797. Online at https://digitreaties.org/treaties/treaty/170281478/.
Ratified Indian Treaty 32: Creek - Fort Wilkinson, June 16, 1802. Online at https://catalog.archives.gov/id/84565041.
Treaty Between the United States and the Creek Nation of Indians Signed Near Fort Wilkinson on the Oconee River. Online at https://digitreaties.org/treaties/treaty/84767647/.
Ratified Indian Treaty 50: Creeks - Washington, DC, November 14, 1805. Online at https://digitreaties.org/treaties/treaty/161303993/.
Treaty Between the United States and the Creek Indians Signed at Washington, DC. Online at https://digitreaties.org/treaties/treaty/161378334/.
Ratified Indian Treaty 91: Creeks - Creek Agency, Flint River, January 22, 1818. Online at https://digitreaties.org/treaties/treaty/162432916/.
Treaty Between the United States and the Creek Indians Signed at the Creek Agency on the Flint River. Online at https://digitreaties.org/treaties/treaty/162496358/.
Ratified Indian Treaty 116: Creek - Indian Springs in the Creek Nation, January 8, 1821. Online at https://catalog.archives.gov/id/100377992.
Articles of Agreement Between the Commissioners of Georgia and the Creek Indians. Online at https://digitreaties.org/treaties/treaty/102248714/.
Handwritten Signed Statement by the Commissioners of Georgia Releasing the Creek Indians from All Claims by Georgia Citizens. Online at https://digitreaties.org/treaties/treaty/102248703/.
Treaty Between the United States and the Creek Indians Signed at Indian Springs in the Creek Nation. Online at https://digitreaties.org/treaties/treaty/102248695/.
Ratified Indian Treaty 125: Creek - Indian Springs, February 12, 1825. Online at https://catalog.archives.gov/id/121122213.
Agreement Between the United States and the Creek Indians on Cession of Indian Springs Reservation to the United States. Online at https://digitreaties.org/treaties/treaty/121122239/.
Agreement by Creek Indians to Relinquish Right, Title, and Control of a Reserve of Land to General William McIntosh and His Heirs. Online at https://digitreaties.org/treaties/treaty/121146025/.
Printed Copy of the February 12, 1825, Treaty Between the United States and the Creek Indians Signed at Indian Springs. Online at https://digitreaties.org/treaties/treaty/121182953/.
Treaty Between the United States and the Creek Indians Signed at Indian Springs. Online at https://digitreaties.org/treaties/treaty/121122216/.
Ratified Indian Treaty 144: Creeks - Washington, DC, January 24, 1826. Online at https://digitreaties.org/treaties/treaty/169371358/.
Brown Cover Sheet: "1826. Treaty with the Creek's. Concluded Jan. 24, 1826. Ratified April 22nd, 1826." Online at https://digitreaties.org/treaties/treaty/169371359/.
Supplementary Article to the January 24, 1826, Treaty Between the United States and the Creek Indians. Online at https://digitreaties.org/treaties/treaty/169371361/.
Treaty Between the United States and the Creek Indians Signed at Washington, DC. Online at https://digitreaties.org/treaties/treaty/169371360/.
Ratified Indian Treaty 150: Creek - Creek Agency, November 15, 1827. Online at https://catalog.archives.gov/id/102248631.
Brown Cover Sheet: "1827. Indian Treaty Creeks. 15 Nov. 1827". Online at https://digitreaties.org/treaties/treaty/102702319/.
Brown Envelope: "Original and Printed Copy. 1827. Treaty with the Creeks. Concluded Nov. 15th 1827. Ratified March 4th 1828." Online at https://digitreaties.org/treaties/treaty/102702323/.
Printed Copy of the Ratified Treaty Between the United States and the Creek Indians Signed at the Creek Agency on November 15, 1827 (Copy 1 of 2), with Annotations on Page One. Online at https://digitreaties.org/treaties/treaty/102702325/.
Printed Copy of the Ratified Treaty Between the United States and the Creek Indians Signed at the Creek Agency on November 15, 1827 (Copy 2 of 2). Online at https://digitreaties.org/treaties/treaty/102702326/.
Treaty Between the United States and the Creek Indians Signed at the Creek Agency. Online at https://digitreaties.org/treaties/treaty/102702320/.
Ratified Indian Treaty 167: Creek - Washington, DC, March 24, 1832. Online at https://catalog.archives.gov/id/124047004.
Brown Cover Sheet: "1832 Treaty with the Creeks. Concluded, March 24, 1832. Ratified, April 4, 1832." Online at https://digitreaties.org/treaties/treaty/124047005/.
Treaty Between the United States and the Creek Indians Signed at Washington, DC. Online at https://digitreaties.org/treaties/treaty/124047006/.
Ratified Indian Treaty 183: Creek - Fort Gibson, Arkansas River, February 14, 1833. Online at https://catalog.archives.gov/id/124218402.
Brown Cover Sheet: "1833. Original and Printed Copy. Treaty with the Muskogee or Creek Nation. Concluded Feby. 14th 1833. Ratified April 12th 1834." Online at https://digitreaties.org/treaties/treaty/124218406/.
Printed Copy of "Treaty Between the United States of America and the Muskogee or Creek Nation of Indians. Concluded February 14, 1833 - Ratified April 12, 1834." Online at https://digitreaties.org/treaties/treaty/124218432/.
Treaty Between the United States and the Creek Indians Signed at Fort Gibson, Arkansas River. Online at https://digitreaties.org/treaties/treaty/124218429/.
Ratified Indian Treaty 198: Comanche, Wichita, Cherokee, Muscogee, Choctaw, Osage, Seneca, and Quapaw - Camp Holmes, Muscogee Nation - August 24, 1835. Online at https://catalog.archives.gov/id/147968177.
Printed Copy of the Treaty Between the United States of America and the Comanche and Wichita Nations, and Their Associated Bands or Tribes of Indians, Concluded August 24, 1835 - Ratified May 19, 1836. With Muscogee. Online at https://digitreaties.org/treaties/treaty/148017340/.
Small Cover Sheet: "1835. Comanche & Witchetaw Nations and their associated bands or tribes. Concluded August 24th 1835. Ratified May 19th 1836". Online at https://digitreaties.org/treaties/treaty/147968190/.
Treaty Between the United States and the Comanche, Wichita, Cherokee, Muscogee, Choctaw, Osage, Seneca, and Quapaw Indians Signed at Camp Holmes, Muscogee Nation. Online at https://digitreaties.org/treaties/treaty/147968205/.
Ratified Indian Treaty 244: Creeks and Seminole - Creek Agency, January 4, 1845. Online at https://digitreaties.org/treaties/treaty/165042746/.
Brown Envelope: "Printed Copies. Indian Treaty. Creek & Seminole Indians. Concluded 4th Jany. 1845. Ratified July 18 1845." Online at https://digitreaties.org/treaties/treaty/165042762/.
Printed Copy of the Treaty Between the United States and the Creek and Seminole Indians, Concluded January 4, 1845 and Ratified July 18, 1845 (Copy 1 of 4). Online at https://digitreaties.org/treaties/treaty/165042763/.
Treaty Between the United States and the Creek and Seminole Indians Signed at the Creek Agency, Creek Territory, with Amendments Dated May 28, 1845. Online at https://digitreaties.org/treaties/treaty/165042748/.

United States. Supreme Court. Creek Nation v. United States, 318 U.S. 629 (1943) (U. S. Reports). Online at https://www.loc.gov/item/usrep318629/, link to pdf. Case dealt with railroads on Indian lands.

United States. War Department. "Papers...1784 to 1800." This project at George Mason University is attempting to reconstruct the papers destroyed when the War Office burned in 1800 by finding and digitizing copies from scattered repositories. There are many references to the Creeks. Internet at: http://wardepartmentpapers.org/index.php .


Waring, Antonio J., ed. Laws of the Creek Nation. (University of Georgia Libraries Miscellanea Publications no. 1) Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1960. These laws were written out on January 7, 1825 by Chilly McIntosh for his cousin Governor George M. Troup. The actual text of the laws occupies 11 pages of this 27 page pamphlet.

Watson, D. C. See Creek National Council.

West Florida. General Assembly. The Minutes, Journals, and Acts of the General Assembly of British West Florida. University: University of Alabama Press, [1978]. Introduction by Robert R. Rea. Indexed.

Wight, ___. "Journal of the Passage of Serj't Wight to the Upper Creek Indian Nation 1771 [and back to Pensacola]." IN Colonial Captivities, Marches and Journeys, edited, under the auspices of the National Society of the Colonial Dames of America, by Isabel M. Calder. Baltimore: Waverly Press, 1935, pp. 236-243. Wight's first name not given. Has a short passage describing the Indians.

Willett, William W. A Narrative of the Military Actions of Colonel Marinus Willett, Taken Chiefly from His Own Manuscript. Prepared by His Son. New York: G. & C. & H. Carvill, 1831. Reprinted 1969. Chap. 9, pp. 94-113, deals with the Creek treaty delegation's visit to New York in 1790. Col. Willett was sent by Washington to escort the delegation. The chapter deals mostly with his visit to the Creek country and says very little about the time in New York. Online 1831 edition at https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/009590016 .

Woodhouse, S. W. A Naturalist in Indian Territory: the Journals of S. W. Woodhouse, 1849-50, edited and annotated by John S. Toner and Michael J. Brodhead. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1992.

Woodward, Thomas S. Woodward's Reminiscences of the Creek, or Muscogee Indians, Contained in Letters to Friends in Georgia and Alabama. 1859. Woodward served in McIntosh's and Andrew Jackson's forces. Online at http://www.archive.org/details/woodwardsreminis00wood.

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